Certain revenue is the result of government incentives or tariffs. Chinese feed-in-tariff programs for both solar and wind energy consist of two components: a base tariff and a green tariff. These two components provide for a fixed tariff of Chinese yuan renminbi 0.55–1.0/kWh. The green tariff makes up the difference between the base tariff and the fixed tariff. The base tariff is calculated by the provincial power company on the basis of the prevailing cost of the desulfurized coal power supply in the province and is recognized as electricity is delivered. The green tariff is recognized as revenue when payments are received from the government. Revenue recognized as a result of these government incentives was $10.2 million, $9.3 million and $11.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Certain revenue is the result of generation based incentives implemented by the Indian government for grid connected wind power plants. Generation based incentives are disbursed through the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency at INR 0.50/kWh of electricity fed into the grid. Generation based incentives are limited to a maximum of INR 10 million/MW of installed capacity and can be claimed within a minimum of four years and a maximum of ten years from the date of commissioning. Revenue recognized as a result of these government incentives was $0.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2016. No revenue was recognized as a result of these government incentives in prior years.
The Company accounts for income taxes using the liability method in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 740, Income Taxes (“ASC 740”), which requires that it use the asset and liability method of accounting for deferred income taxes and provides deferred income taxes for all significant temporary differences.
The Company reports certain of its revenues and expenses differently for financial statement purposes than for income tax return purposes, resulting in temporary and permanent differences between the Company’s financial statements and income tax returns. The tax effects of such temporary differences are recorded as either deferred income tax assets or deferred income tax liabilities in the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. The Company measures its deferred income tax assets and deferred income tax liabilities using income tax rates that are currently in effect. The Company believes it is more likely than not that the results of future operations will generate sufficient taxable income which includes the future reversal of existing taxable temporary differences to realize deferred tax assets, net of valuation allowances. A valuation allowance is recorded to reduce the net deferred tax assets to an amount that is more-likely-than-not to be realized.
Tax benefits are recognized when it is more-likely-than-not that a tax position will be sustained upon examination by the authorities. The benefit recognized from a position that has surpassed the more-likely-than-not threshold is the largest amount of benefit that is more than 50% likely to be realized upon settlement. The Company recognizes interest and penalties accrued related to uncertain tax benefits as a component of income tax expense.
Changes to existing net deferred tax assets or valuation allowances or changes to uncertain tax benefits are recorded to income tax expense.
The Company is involved in conditions, situations or circumstances in the ordinary course of business with possible gain or loss contingencies that will ultimately be resolved when one or more future events occur or fail to occur. See Note 6 - Deposits for Acquisitions, which describes circumstances surrounding certain payments to SunEdison and the related provision for contingent loss established during 2015. If some amount within a range of loss appears at the time to be a better estimate than any other amount within the range, that amount will be accrued. When no amount within the range is a better estimate than any other amount, however, the minimum amount in the range will be accrued.
The Company continually evaluates uncertainties associated with loss contingencies and records a charge equal to at least the minimum estimated liability for a loss contingency when both of the following conditions are met: (i) information available prior to issuance of the financial statements indicates that it is probable that an asset had been impaired or a liability had been incurred at the date of the financial statements; and (ii) the loss or range of loss can be reasonably estimated. Legal costs are expensed when incurred. Gain contingencies are not recorded until realized or realizable.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company recognizes its derivative instruments as assets or liabilities at fair value in the consolidated balance sheets. Fair value balances are not offset and reported on a gross basis. Accounting for changes in the fair value (i.e., gains or